Journal Aricles
  • Mangrove Agroforestry - Relieving Poverty and Hunger

    About 700,000 mangroves, chiefly Avicennia marina, were grown in the tree-less mud flats of Eritrea by a newly developed technology that provides required nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. A method of fertilization was devised that eliminates the possibility of fertilizer runoff. Novel methods have been developed for planting seeds at the final site and protecting seedlings from uprooting by wave action and encircling wrasse. Methods were developed for preserving mangrove seeds by sun-drying, which results in a stable grain-like product. However, dried mangrove seeds and foliage are insufficient for supporting good growth of sheep, which was a desired outcome. Supplementation of mangrove material with small quantities of a stress food for sheep, consisting of fat-soluble vitamins and minerals renders the mangroves an adequate food. Together, these findings are capable of forming a profitable sea water agriculture and relieving hunger and poverty in many regions of the world.

    Gordon Sato, Abraham Fisseha, Simon Gebrekiros, Hassan Abdul Karim, Samuel Negassi, Martin Fischer, Emanuel Yemane, Johannes Teclemariam, and Robert Riley

    Wetlands 25(3):776-779.



  • Riley Encased Methodology: principles and processes of mangrove habitat creation and restoration

    Riley encased methodology (REM) was developed for the purpose of establishing mangroves along highenergy shorelines, revetments, and bulkheads where natural recruitment no longer occurs and where conventional planting methods are ineffective. The principles of REM include the processes of individual seedling isolation within tubular encasements and adaptation of the juvenile plant to the external environment of the restoration site. The success of REM results from specifications for encasement preparation, propagule or seedling selection, and positioning of both encasements and seedlings according to elevation and tidal regimes.

    Robert W. Riley and Chandra P. Salgado Kent

    Mangroves and Salt Marshes Volume 3, Number 4, 207-213.



  • A comparison of Riley encased methodology and traditional techniques for planting red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle)

    The effectiveness of encasement and traditional techniques for planting red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) in moderate to high wave energy environments was assessed. The three encasement types were the halflength PVC pipes, fulllength PVC pipes, and bamboo pipes. Plantings were conducted in August, 1997 at two locations in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Sebastian and Rocky Point. Furthermore, plantings were conducted in November, 1997 using fulllength encasements and conventional planting. Results indicate that seedlings planted within fulllength PVC encasements had the highest survivorship and growth because of their protection from waves and currents. Failure of seedlings within bamboo encasements seemed to be caused by insufficient light exposure. When comparing the two locations, a significantly greater growth was observed at the Sebastian location than at the Rocky Point location for the planting conducted in November, but not for those planted in August. No significant difference was observed in seedling survival when comparing those planted in August and November. However, there was a significantly greater growth in mangroves planted in August. With the exception of width of surf zone, there was no significant difference in the selected environmental parameters between the two locations.

    Chandra P. Salgado Kent

    Mangroves and Salt Marshes, Volume 3, Number 4, 215-225.



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